Antinuclear antibodies are produced by the immune system when it fails to distinguish between its own cells and foreign invaders such as bacteria and viruses. Antinuclear antibodies attack proteins inside the body's own healthy cells and cause symptoms such as inflammation, joint pain and fatigue.
Gastric parietal cell antibodies
Parietal cell antibodies are autoantibodies, produced by the immune system that mistakenly target and destroy parietal cells, specialised cells in the stomach that aid digestion and make intrinsic factor. Intrinsic factor is required for the absorption of vitamin B12 from food. The progressive loss of parietal cells may lead to a vitamin B12 deficiency. Gastric parietal cells antibodies are associated with autoimmune gastritis and pernicious anaemia. This test helps to find out more about the cause of a vitamin B12 deficiency.
Smooth Muscle Antibodies
Thyroid peroxidase antibodies
Thyroid peroxidase (TPO) is an enzyme important in the production of thyroid hormones. This test looks for antibodies against TPO which are often raised in cases of autoimmune thyroid conditions and occasionally in healthy individuals.
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