Thyroglobulin is a protein contained in abundance within the thyroid gland from which the hormone thyroxine is manufactured. It contains tyrosine molecules, which when bound to 4 iodine atoms form thyroxine (T4).
Thyroid antibodies are immunological weapons that target different proteins in the thyroid gland as part of an autoimmune disease such as Hashimoto’s disease or Graves' disease, where the immune system turns itself onto the body’s own tissues.
They thyroid gland is located in the front of the neck below the voice box and plays an important role in metabolism whereby oxygen and calories are converted to energy. The thyroid gland is responsible for producing thyroid hormones Thyroxine (T4) and Triiodothyronine (T3).
Thyroid nodules are very common, especially in people over the age of 60. They are caused when there is abnormal growth of thyroid cells which cause lumps on the thyroid gland. The vast majority of thyroid nodules are benign but a small proportion are cancerous. Normally a thyroid nodule will be investigated through a biopsy. Sometimes thyroid nodules can affect swallowing and breathing, but normally they do not produce any symptoms.
Thyroid peroxidase is an enzyme found within the thyroid gland which is essential for thyroxine hormone production. It converts iodide (which arrives at the thyroid gland in the bloodstream) to iodine which in turn gets bound to tyrosine to form thyroxine.
Thyroid Stimulating Hormone (TSH) is produced in the pituitary gland at the base of our brains to stimulate thyroid hormone production. If blood levels of thyroid hormones are high, the pituitary signals the thyroid to stop production, whereas if thyroid hormone levels are low it will signal to increase production. TSH is often measured as a proxy for thyroid hormones.
A thyroid storm is caused by extreme hyperthyroidism. Symptoms include rapid heartbeat, raised blood pressure, exhaustion and fever. It is caused by under-treated or untreated hyperthyroidism and can often be fatal.
Thyroxine is also known as T4 and is the predominant hormone produced by the thyroid gland. It is known as T4 because it uses 4 atoms of iodine (from the food we eat). Thyroxine isn't active in our cells and must convert to Triiodothyronine (T3), the active thyroid hormone, before it can influence our body's metabolism.
Tissue transglutaminase (tTG) is an enzyme responsible for joining proteins and is a marker for coeliac disease. High levels are seen in coeliac disease but these reduce and even disappear once the coeliac disease has been treated by excluding gluten in the diet.
decreased sensitivity of the body to a certain drug, usually either because the liver becomes more efficient at breaking down the drug or the body's tissues become less sensitive to it; increased tolerance creates a need for a higher dose of the drug in order to have the same effects
removal of cancerous tissue from the prostate gland using a resectoscope (a long, narrow instrument passed up the urethra), which allows the surgeon to simultaneously view the prostate and cut away the cancerous tissue
Triiodothyronine (T3) is a potent thyroid hormone which governs metabolism in our body's cells. The thyroid gland produces some triiodothyronine, but most of is derived from thyroxine (T4) which loses an atom of iodine to become T3.
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